The term is Mandarin appointed a diverse group of citrus fruit of great economic importance (in the world, second only to orange). There are different schools of thought as to their botanical classification.
King mandarin (Citrus nobilis – Citrus deliciosa)
The King mandarin (Citrus nobilis – Citrus deliciosa), of Chinese origin, was brought to Europe in the early nineteenth century. seems to be a hybrid of Citrus reticulata (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange).
and ‘a sturdy plant with expanded foliage, up to 4.5 m high The spines are present only on the suckers. The leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate to have thin stalk with wings. The flowers are small, white, fragrant and individuals. The fruits are medium size, globular and depressed at the poles, with thin non-adherent to the pulp, the latter is orange, aromatic and juicy and full of seeds (although seedless varieties have been selected).
Very popular is the variety “Havana” from which they were obtained a number of selections such as Havana and seedless Late Ciaculli. Many varieties are used as an ornamental for the long stay of the fruits on the plant.
Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni)
The Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni), originating in India, plants form compact habit and rounded. The leaves are small, narrow, dark green. The flowers are small and white and the fruits, globose, depressed at the poles, are similar to clementines, the skin is orange, not adhering to the pulp, which has a pleasant taste and is full of seeds .. It resists the cold and is used as rootstocks. Also used as an ornamental plant for the long persistence of the fruit.
Clementine (Citrus reticulata – Citrus clementine)
The origins of Mandarancio are uncertain, according to some scholars is an ancient species from China and the Far East more generally, while others consider it a hybrid between the mandarin and orange (sweet or bitter), others a hybrid between tangerine and bitter orange.
Small tree, sometimes with spiny branches, with rounded crown, symmetrical and open. The leaves are lance-shaped, bright green, with petiole slightly winged. The flowers are single or grouped in small flowers, very fragrant. The orange fruit, orange peel are easy to remove pulp and a sweet, rich juice, and pointed with small seeds (today there are many seedless varieties). There are many varieties, from the group of classical clementines (name derived from that of a missionary monk, Clement Rodier, who cultivated in Algeria) to that of Satsuma, obtained in Japan more than four centuries ago.
Their maturation is earlier than the mandarins and are more resistant to cold.
The most known varieties of clementines are Monreal, a Nules, Oroval and Late.
Franco is grafted onto the same species or similar species, but also uses the Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni). Not maturing after harvest, are captured at the desired stage of ripeness.
Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu)
As mentioned, the Satsuma mandarin is native to Japan (more than four centuries ago). Italy has been brought in the late nineteenth century.
Plant small to medium, usually from limbed. Leaves large, dark green, elliptical with pointed tip. The flowers, single or in groups, white, appear in spring. The fruits are medium, globular and depressed at the poles, orange, have thin skin, easy to remove, the pulp is juicy and usually seedless. The fruits are ripe when they have not yet reached the full color of the skin. Enough to resist the cold and are prized as an ornamental plant for the long persistence of the fruit. Grafted on trifoliate orange.
Mandarin Tangerine (Citrus Tangerine) and Tangor
The Mandarin tangerine belongs to the very heterogeneous group of Tangerines. Tanaka considers it a separate species, other cultivar (“Dancy”) of tangerines.